Present: Simple, Perfect, and Progressive

A. Use present simple for routines, habits, or things that are always true.

He takes the subway. (every day)

B. Use present progressive (is/are -ing) for a temporary routine or situation.

He is taking the subway. (now)

C. Use present perfect (have/has -ed) for a situation where things that happened in the past have a result in the present.

Present perfect often goes with just, yet, for, since, ever, never, first time, second time, this week.
He has just cut himself. (We can see the direct immediate result of this action - the blood.)

Past: Simple, Perfect, and Progressive

A. Use past simple for something that was finished in the past.

She traveled in Europe. (at some time in the past)

B. Use past progressive (was/were -ing) for a temporary routine or situation that happened in the past.

She was traveling in Europe. (last summer; for one month)

C. Use past perfect (had -ed for something that happened before a certain point in time in the past.

She had traveled in Europe before she decided to study there.

Future: Use of Will and Other words with Future Meaning

A. Use will for instant decisions.

OK. I will accept your offer.

B. Use be going to for established plans.

They are going to buy drinks for the party.

C. Use present simple instead of future tense in adverbial clauses led by if, the moment, when, etc.

We will start the moment he arrives.

Source: Starter_TOEIC_3rd_Edition